User's Guides to the Medical Literature
Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group

Was the assignment of patients to treatments randomized'
Were all patients who entered the trial accounted for and attributed at its conclusion?

Was there an independent, blind comparison with a reference standard?
Did the patient sample include an appropriate spectrum of patients to whom the test will be applied?

Except for the exposure under study, were the compared groups similar to each other?
Were the outcomes and exposures measured in the same ways in both groups?

Was a defined, representative sample of patients assemble at a similar point in the course of their disease?
Was follow-up sufficiently long and complete?

Systematic Review
Did the review address a focused clinical question?
Were the criteria used to select articles for inclusion appropriate?

Practice Guidelines
Were all important options and outcomes clearly specified?
Was an explicit and sensible process used to identify, select, and combine evidence?

Decision Analysis
Were all important strategies and outcomes included?
Was an explicit and sensible process used to assemble the evidence into probabilities?

Economic Analysis
Did the analysis provide a full economic comparison of healthcare strategies?
Were the costs and outcomes properly measured and valued?

Health Services Research
Were the outcome measures accurate and comprehensive?
Were there clearly identified, sensible comparison groups?

Clinical Utilization Review
Was an explicit and sensible process used to identify, select, and combine evidence for the criteria?
What is the quality of the evidence used in framing the criteria?